By Jacky Turner
The selection of while, how, how frequently and with whom an animal breeds is relocating speedily clear of evolutionary pressures and in the direction of human reasons: those comprise the breeding of round 50 billion mammals and birds for meals construction each year, the breeding of pedigree canines and cats, racing canines and horses, specialized laboratory animal traces and using reproductive technological know-how to preserve endangered species or breeds and to restrict undesirable populations of pests and non-native species. however the ethics and sustainability of this takeover of animals' reproductive lives were insufficiently tested via both pros or the general public. This ebook discusses the tools, the motivations and the implications of human intervention in animal breeding by way of animal health and wellbeing, behaviour and health and wellbeing. It explores the place we're now and the alternatives forward, and appears to a destiny the place we've extra appreciate for animals as sentient beings and the place lets loosen the reins of reproductive keep watch over.
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39 Once a dairy cow has calved, the calf is removed almost immediately after birth to be reared separately and the cow is milked for a lactation period of around 10 months (or often 12 months in the US). She then has a two-month ‘dry’ period before the next calf is born. Much research has been carried out into how to increase the peak yield of her lactation and how to reduce the falloff in yield after the peak. An artificial aid to increase milk production is the synthetic growth hormone bovine somatotrophin (bST), which can be injected into dairy cows every two weeks.
The Belgian blue breed and some lines in the Charolais and other breeds have ‘double-muscling’. 4 in Chapter 3). Some pure beef breed cows become so muscle bound that they are unsuited to breeding and suckling calves. Most beef production therefore relies on cross-breeding to get a desired mix of the exaggerated traits that the last half century has created in cattle breeds. 5 The dairy production cycle For the owner of a commercial dairy cow, one of her most important attributes is her ability to get pregnant when required and infertility is one of the main reasons for cows being culled by their owners.
She then has a two-month ‘dry’ period before the next calf is born. Much research has been carried out into how to increase the peak yield of her lactation and how to reduce the falloff in yield after the peak. An artificial aid to increase milk production is the synthetic growth hormone bovine somatotrophin (bST), which can be injected into dairy cows every two weeks. 40 Genetic change in dairy cows has also changed the way they are fed and housed. Cows traditionally produced milk from grazing on pasture in the summer and from conserved grass in the winter, but for ‘high genetic merit’ cows this is no longer the case.