By George W. Stocking Jr. (ed.)
The thirty-nine decisions during this quantity characterize the more and more diversified parts of study and variety of lasting accomplishments in American anthropology throughout the interwar interval. Introducing those essays is a old evaluation of yank anthropology in this period through George W. Stocking Jr.
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Extra resources for American Anthropology, 1921-1945: Papers from the "American Anthropologist"
W. Putnam and W. H. Holmes over the antiquity of man in the Americas. Although he began under Putnam’s inﬂuence at the American Museum, Hrdliˇcka became a staunch supporter of Holmes once he entered government anthropology in 1903. Attacking every alleged ‘‘ﬁnd’’ on the basis of morphological arguments, he succeeded in exiling early man from the hemisphere—so successfully that until 1930 it was almost heretical to claim an antiquity greater than two or three thousand years. Given such a limited time perspective, and in the absence of an adequate historical archaeology, ethnology perhaps seemed a more likely approach to the history of man in the Americas than might otherwise have been the case.
Their very marginality, however, made these trends seem disturbing to some anthropologists committed to a diachronic viewpoint, and fears were expressed that the ﬁeld was losing its center. Retrospectively, it seems clear that in a certain sense this was indeed the case. ∞ Although its fulﬁllment was a post-war phenomenon, this process was reﬂected in changing terminological emphases by 1945. ‘‘Ethnology’’ no longer held the ﬁeld as the rubric encompassing inquiry into human cultural variability.
Her work helped to establish an integrationalist view of culture, and by focusing attention on culturally deﬁned emotional and value orientations offered a broad framework for the explanation of human behavior. But although in principle at least Benedict allowed for differences in the degree of integration of different cultures, she left unanswered numerous questions as to the factors determining their development, their inﬂuence on human behavior, and the variability of individual behavior within any particular cultural context (see selection no.