By Ira M. Lapidus
Lengthy thought of a vintage, A historical past of Islamic Societies is now that rather more invaluable a reference for basic readers and students alike. broadly praised for its balanced and complete account, Ira Lapidus' paintings has been absolutely revised in its insurance of every nation and area of the Muslim global via 2001. It comprises the origins and evolution of Islamic societies and brings into concentration the historic procedures that gave form to the manifold forms of modern Islam. The concluding chapters survey the growing to be impact of the Islamist events inside of nationwide states and of their transnational or international dimensions, together with the Islamic revival, Islamist politics and terrorism. An up-to-date dialogue of the jobs of girls in Islamic societies is additional, with new sections approximately Afghanistan and Muslims in Europe, the United States, and the Philippines. Ira M. Lapidus is Professor Emeritus of heritage on the college of California at Berkeley. His many books and articles contain Islam, Politics and Social events (University of California Press, 1988) and Muslim towns within the Later heart a long time (Cambridge, 1984).
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Extra resources for A History of Islamic Societies
The Second Pledge of al-῾Aqaba occurred one year after the first, during the hajj in March 622, and involved seventy men and two women from the al-Aws and al-Khazraj. 76 Revolution · 47 They met in the same location, but this pledge was very different from the one before, for it now involved a pledge of war.
58 If one is to gain the allegiance of another, they must grant something in return, and that was usually some form of protection. Those claiming to be Muslims in the early days in Makkah were still affiliated with their families and clans, and for anyone outside those groups to make aggressive moves against such people would risk the imposition of the lex talionis and the blood feud. The only ones who could overtly assault a Muslim would be one within that Muslim’s family or clan, and even this could cause problems between the different families of the clan.
As a consequence, the more wealthy merchants began to build their own small fortifications that were separate from their tribal kinsmen, employed small bands of men as retainers to protect their lives and property, and used their wealth to ignore selected decisions coming from the body of tribal leaders. 15 However, they had little power to force any clan of the Quraysh to accept a decision, and this lack of authority trickled down to the merchants, who rose like a phoenix in the towns to demand a level of independence unheard of in Arabian life.