By J.L. Vegad
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Extra info for A Colour Atlas of Poultry Diseases: An Aid for Farmers and Poultry Professionals
Necrotic enteritis in a 50-day-old broiler chicken. The picture presents middle portion of the small intestine where the changes are most marked . The intestines are cut open. Note that their walls are greatly thickened and the inner surface is lined by a loose to tightly attached yellow layer (a false layer). Areas of small haemorrhages are present. There was also concurrent mild coccidiosis. Fig. 65. Necrotic enteritis in the small intestine of the same 50-day-old broiler chicken shown in Fig.
Yolk sac infection in a 4-day-old chick. Note yolk sac is distended, hyperaemic (showing prominent vessels) , and filled with abnormal brown watery contents (arrow). Fig. 50. Omphalitis (inflammation of navel) and yolk sac infection in three 3day-old chicks. Navels are inflamed and yolk sacs distended with abnormal contents (arrows). 37 BACTERIAL DISEASES A COLOUR ATLAS OF POULTRY DISEASES Fig. 51. E. coli infection (Colisepticaemia) in a 7-day-old broiler chick. Note a thin layer of white fibrin covers the liver (arrow).
Coli persist for long periods outside the bird 's body in dry, dusty conditions. 3. Overcrowding 4. Poor ventilation 5. Poor litter condition 6. Exposure to ammonia 7. Temperature extremes (too hot or too cold) 8. 9. Stress Feed/water restriction 10. Immunosuppression : Certain factors cause immunosuppression. That is, they suppress the natural immune responses. The bird is therefore unable to fight E. coli and succumbs to infection. For example, viral infections and toxins, such as mycotoxins, cause immunosuppression and predispose the birds to coli bacillosis.